Those criteria, including performance requirements and essential conditions, which must be met before project deliverables are accepted.
Acquire Project Team [Process]
The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments.
A component of work performed during the course of a project.
Activity Attributes [Output/Input]
Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.
The time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity. See also duration.
A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity from other activities. Typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram.
Activity List [Output/Input]
A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
Actual Cost (AC)
Total costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Actual cost can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs. Also referred to as the actual cost of work performed (ACWP). See also earned value management and earned value technique.
Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)
See actual cost (AC).
The time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete.
Administer Procurements [Process]
The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed.
Analogous Estimating [Technique]
An estimating technique that uses the values of parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity from a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity.
A category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of customer (i.e., internal versus external, government versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies, etc.). Application areas can overlap.
Approved Change Request [Output/Input]
A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved.
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration.
Assumptions Analysis [Technique]
A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.
The rights to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or give approvals.
The calculation of late finishes dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all schedule activities. Determined by working backwards through the schedule network logic from the project’s end date. See also schedule network analysis.
An approved plan for a project, plus or minus approved changes. It is compared to actual performance to determine if performance is within acceptable variance thresholds. Generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost performance baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline).
Bottom-up Estimating [Technique]
A method of estimating a component of work. The work is decomposed into more detail. An estimate is prepared of what is needed to meet the requirements of each of the lower, more detailed pieces of work, and these estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for the component of work. The accuracy of bottom-up estimating is driven by the size and complexity of the work identified at the lower levels.
A general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas, or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject-matter experts.
The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity. See also estimate.
Budget at Completion (BAC)
The sum of all the budgets established for the work to be performed on a project or a work breakdown structure component or a schedule activity. The total planned value for the project.
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)
See earned value (EV).
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)
See planned value (PV).
The acquirer of products, services, or results for an organization.
The smallest unit of time used in scheduling a project. Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in quarter years, months, shifts, or even in minutes.
Identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting, and controlling changes to the project baselines.
Change Control Board (CCB)
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to a project, with all decisions and recommendations being recorded.
Change Control System [Tool]
A collection of formal documented procedures that define how project deliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed, and approved. In most application areas, the change control system is a subset of the configuration management system.
Requests to expand or reduce the project scope, modify policies, processes, plans, or procedures, modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules.
See project charter.
A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer, or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract, such as for a disputed change.
Close Procurements [Process]
The process of completing each project procurement.
Close Project or Phase [Process]
The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase.
Closing Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally close the project or phase.
An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
Code of Accounts [Tool]
Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure.
Collect Requirements [Process]
Collect Requirements is the process of defining and documenting stakeholders’ needs to meet the project objectives.
A source of variation that is inherent in the system and predictable. On a control chart, it appears as part of the random process variation (i.e., variation from a process that would be considered normal or not unusual), and is indicated by a random pattern of points within the control limits. Also referred to as random cause. Contrast with special cause.
Communication Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that describes: the communications needs and expectations for the project; how and in what format information will be communicated; when and where each communication will be made; and who is responsible for providing each type of communication. The communication management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan.
Conduct Procurements [Process]
The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
Configuration Management System [Tool]
A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes.
The state, quality, or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to a project, which will affect the performance of the project or a process. For example, a schedule constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project schedule that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of fixed imposed dates.
Contingency Reserve [Output/Input]
The amount of funds, budget, or time needed above the estimate to reduce the risk of overruns of project objectives to a level acceptable to the organization.
A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control Account [Tool]
A management control point where scope, budget (resource plans), actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement. See also work package.
Control Chart [Tool]
A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, and that has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Control Costs [Process]
The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project budget and managing changes to the cost baseline.
The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart that reflects the expected variation in the data. See also specification limits.
Control Schedule [Process]
The process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline.
Control Scope [Process]
The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
Documented direction for executing the project work to bring expected future performance of the project work in line with the project management plan.
Cost Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that sets out the format and establishes the activities and criteria for planning, structuring, and controlling the project costs. The cost management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan.
Cost Performance Baseline
A specific version of the time-phased budget used to compare actual expenditures to planned expenditures to determine if preventive or corrective action is needed to meet the project objectives.
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
A measure of cost efficiency on a project. It is the ratio of earned value (EV) to actual costs (AC). CPI = EV divided by AC.
Cost Variance (CV)
A measure of cost performance on a project. It is the difference between earned value (EV) and actual cost (AC). CV = EV minus AC.
Cost of Quality (COQ) [Technique]
A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF) Contract
A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) Contract
A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
A type of contract involving payment to the seller for the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing seller’s profit. Cost-reimbursable contracts often include incentive clauses where, if the seller meets or exceeds selected project objectives, such as schedule targets or total cost, then the seller receives from the buyer an incentive or bonus payment.
A specific type of project schedule compression technique performed by taking action to decrease the total project schedule duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum schedule duration compression for the least additional cost. Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations and increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities. See also fast tracking and schedule compression.
Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) [Process]
The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based, or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
Any schedule activity on a critical path in a project schedule. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Although some activities are “critical,” in the dictionary sense, without being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.
Critical Chain Method [Technique]
A schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources.
Generally, but not always, the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of the project. It is the longest path through the project. See also critical path methodology.
Critical Path Methodology (CPM) [Technique]
A schedule network analysis technique used to determine the amount of scheduling flexibility (the amount of float) on various logical network paths in the project schedule network, and to determine the minimum total project duration. Early start and finish dates are calculated by means of a forward pass, using a specified start date. Late start and finish dates are calculated by means of a backward pass, starting from a specified completion date, which sometimes is the project early finish date determined during the forward pass calculation. See also critical path.
The date up to or through which the project’s reporting system has provided actual status and accomplishments. Also called as-of date and time-now date.
Decision Tree Analysis [Technique]
The decision tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. It is used when some future scenarios or outcomes of actions are uncertain. It incorporates probabilities and the costs or rewards of each logical path of events and future decisions, and uses expected monetary value analysis to help the organization identify the relative values of alternate actions. See also expected monetary value analysis.
A planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring, and controlling the work.
An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced.
The formally documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component.
Define Activities [Process]
The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
Define Scope [Process]
The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. See also product and result.
Delphi Technique [Technique]
An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome.
See logical relationship.
Determine Budget [Process]
The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.
Develop Human Resource Plan [Process]
The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
Develop Project Charter [Process]
The process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder’s needs and expectations.
Develop Project Management Plan [Process]
The processes of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans.
Develop Project Team [Process]
The process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance.
Develop Schedule [Process]
The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.
Direct and Manage Project Execution [Process]
The process of performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project’s objectives.
Distribute Information [Process]
The process of making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned.
Duration (DU or DUR)
The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort.
Early Finish Date (EF)
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can finish, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan.
Early Start Date (ES)
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can start, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan.
Earned Value (EV)
The value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).
Earned Value Management (EVM)
A management methodology for integrating scope, schedule, and resources, and for objectively measuring project performance and progress. Performance is measured by determining the budgeted cost of work performed (i.e., earned value) and comparing it to the actual cost of work performed (i.e., actual cost).
Earned Value Technique (EVT) [Technique]
A specific technique for measuring the performance of work and used to establish the performance measurement baseline (PMB).
The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. Contrast with duration.
Enterprise Environmental Factors [Output/Input]
Any or all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the project’s success. These factors are from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project, and include organizational culture and structure, infrastructure, existing resources, commercial databases, market conditions, and project management software.
Estimate Activity Durations [Process]
The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
Estimate Activity Resources [Process]
The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment or supplies required to perform each activity.
Estimate Costs [Process]
The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.
A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., ± x percent). See also budget.
Estimate at Completion (EAC) [Output/Input]
The expected total cost of a schedule activity, a work breakdown structure component, or the project when the defined scope of work will be completed. The EAC may be calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the project team based on other factors, in which case it is often referred to as the latest revised estimate. See also earned value technique and estimate to complete.
Estimate to Complete (ETC) [Output/Input]
The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, work breakdown structure component, or the project. See also earned value technique and estimate at completion.
Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work, providing the deliverables, and providing work performance information.
Executing Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project objectives.
Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis
A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. A common use of this technique is within decision tree analysis.
Expert Judgment [Technique]
Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) [Technique]
An analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a product (at the system and/or lower levels) for all ways that a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total system and of its impact. In addition, a review is undertaken of the action planned to minimize the probability of failure and to minimize its effects.
Fast Tracking [Technique]
A specific project schedule compression technique that changes network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to perform schedule activities in parallel. See also crashing and schedule compression.
A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current.
The logical relationship where completion of work of the successor activity cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.
The logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.
Firm-Fixed-Price (FFP) Contract
A type of fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller’s costs.
Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF) Contract
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.
Also called slack. See total float and free float.
The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.
An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. See also schedule network analysis and backward pass.
The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following schedule activities. See also total float.
Someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a functional organization. The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes called a line manager.
A hierarchical organization where each employee has one clear superior, and staff are grouped by areas of specialization and managed by a person with expertise in that area.
[Tool ] A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars.
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., “hammer”), but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).
See summary activity.
Documents and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.
Human Resource Plan
A document describing how roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staffing management will be addressed and structured for the project. It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.
Identify Risks [Process]
The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.
Identify Stakeholders [Process]
The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, and impact on project success.
A fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a “start no earlier than” and “finish no later than” date.
Influence Diagram [Tool]
A graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.
Initiating Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.
Input [Process Input]
Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.
Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.
Invitation for Bid (IFB)
Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements.
A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the predecessor activity has finished. See also lead.
Late Finish Date (LF)
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may be completed based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late finish dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network.
Late Start Date (LS)
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may begin based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late start dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network.
A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lead, the successor activity can start ten days before the predecessor activity has finished. A negative lead is equivalent to a positive lag. See also lag.
Lessons Learned Knowledge Base
A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance.
Lessons Learned [Output/Input]
The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record, to be included in the lessons learned knowledge base.
See resource leveling.
See project life cycle.
A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, quality control, action, or defect.
A dependency between two project schedule activities, or between a project schedule activity and a schedule milestone. The four possible types of logical relationships are: Finish-to-Start; Finish-to-Finish; Start-to-Start; and Start-to-Finish. See also precedence relationship.
Manage Project Team [Process]
The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.
Manage Stakeholder Expectations [Process]
The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
Master Schedule [Tool]
A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones. See also milestone schedule.
The aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, material, and supplies.
Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project.
A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.
A significant point or event in the project.
Milestone Schedule [Tool]
A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones. See also master schedule.
Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.
Monitor and Control Project Work [Process]
The process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
Monitor and Control Risks [Process]
The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process throughout the project.
Monitoring and Controlling Processes [Process Group]
Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project, identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required, and initiate the corresponding changes.
Monte Carlo Analysis
A technique that computes or iterates the project cost or project schedule many times using input values selected at random from probability distributions of possible costs or durations, to calculate a distribution of possible total project cost or completion dates.
Monte Carlo Simulation
A process which generates hundreds or thousands of probable performance outcomes based on probability distributions for cost and schedule on individual tasks. The outcomes are then used to generate a probability distribution for the project as a whole.
A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near critical is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project.
See project schedule network diagram.
See schedule network analysis.
The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram.
Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram.
One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines.
Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.
A condition or situation favorable to the project, a positive set of circumstances, a positive set of events, a risk that will have a positive impact on project objectives, or a possibility for positive changes. Contrast with threat.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) [Tool]
A hierarchically organized depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate the work packages to the performing organizational units.
Organizational Process Assets [Output/Input]
Any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that are or can be used to influence the project’s success. These process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines. The process assets also include the organizations’ knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information.
Output [Process Output]
A product, result, or service generated by a process. May be an input to a successor process.
Parametric Estimating [Technique]
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration. An example for the cost parameter is multiplying the planned quantity of work to be performed by the historical cost per unit to obtain the estimated cost.
Pareto Chart [Tool]
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.
The merging or joining of parallel schedule network paths into the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path convergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one predecessor activity.
Extending or generating parallel schedule network paths from the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path divergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one successor activity.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component.
Perform Integrated Change Control [Process]
The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and project management plan.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis [Process]
The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
Perform Quality Assurance [Process]
The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
Perform Quality Control [Process]
The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis [Process]
The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.
Performance Measurement Baseline
An approved integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. Technical and quality parameters may also be included.
Performance Reports [Output/Input]
Documents and presentations that provide organized and summarized work performance information, earned value management parameters and calculations, and analyses of project work progress and status.
The enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
See project phase.
Plan Communications [Process]
The process of determining project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach.
Plan Procurements [Process]
The process of documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
Plan Quality [Process]
The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance.
Plan Risk Management [Process]
The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
Plan Risk Responses [Process]
The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.
Planned Value (PV)
The authorized budget assigned to the scheduled work to be accomplished for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS).
A work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities. See also control account.
Planning Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to establish the total scope of the effort, define and refine the objectives, and develop the course of action required to attain those objectives.
A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.
Portfolio Management [Technique]
The centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling projects, programs, and other related work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives.
A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools.
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) [Technique]
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming method used. See also logical relationship.
The schedule activity that determines when the logical successor activity can begin or end.
A documented direction to perform an activity that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks.
Probability and Impact Matrix [Tool]
A common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate, or high by combining the two dimensions of a risk: its probability of occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs.
Procurement Documents [Output/Input]
The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer’s Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal and seller’s responses.
Procurement Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that describes how procurement processes from developing procurement documentation through contract closure will be managed.
An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item. Additional words for products are material and goods. Contrast with result. See also deliverable.
Product Life Cycle
A collection of generally sequential, non-overlapping product phases whose name and number are determined by the manufacturing and control needs of the organization. The last product life cycle phase for a product is generally the product’s retirement. Generally, a project life cycle is contained within one or more product life cycles.
The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
Product Scope Description
The documented narrative description of the product scope.
A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside of the scope of the discrete projects in the program.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
A technique for estimating that applies a weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
The centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits.
Progressive Elaboration [Technique]
Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process.
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
A calendar of working days or shifts that establishes those dates on which schedule activities are worked and nonworking days that determine those dates on which schedule activities are idle. Typically defines holidays, weekends, and shift hours. See also resource calendar.
Project Charter [Output/Input]
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Communications Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information.
Project Cost Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
Project Human Resource Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize and manage the project team.
Launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project.
Project Integration Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
Project Life Cycle
A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project. A life cycle can be documented with a methodology.
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Project Management Body of Knowledge
An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with other professions, such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it. The complete project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. The body of knowledge includes both published and unpublished materials. This body of knowledge is constantly evolving. PMI’s PMBOK® Guide identifies that subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice.
Project Management Information System (PMIS) [Tool]
An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.
Project Management Knowledge Area
An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.
Project Management Office (PMO)
An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project.
Project Management Plan [Output/Input]
A formal, approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored, and controlled. It may be a summary or detailed and may be composed of one or more subsidiary management plans and other planning documents.
Project Management Process Group
A logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases.
Project Management System [Tool]
The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project.
Project Management Team
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.
Project Manager (PM)
The person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives.
Project Organization Chart [Output/Input]
A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.
A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable. Project phases are mainly completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. A project phase is a component of a project life cycle. A project phase is not a Project Management Process Group.
Project Procurement Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Procurement Management includes the processes to purchase or acquire the products, services, or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work.
Project Quality Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
Project Risk Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Risk Management includes the processes concerned with conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, responses, and monitoring and control on a project.
Project Schedule Network Diagram [Output/Input]
Any schematic display of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project work chronology.
Project Schedule [Output/Input]
The planned dates for performing schedule activities and the planned dates for meeting schedule milestones.
The work that must be performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
Project Scope Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
Project Scope Statement [Output/Input]
The narrative description of the project scope, including major deliverables, project assumptions, project constraints, and a description of work, that provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing a common understanding of project scope among the stakeholders.
Project Team Directory
A documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information.
Project Time Management [Knowledge Area]
Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of a project.
Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities, apply resources, and direct the work of persons assigned to the project.
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
Quality Management Plan [Output/Input]
The quality management plan describes how the project management team will implement the performing organization’s quality policy. The quality management plan is a component or a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.
Requirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable administrative provisions that have government mandated compliance.
Report Performance [Process]
The process of collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts.
Request for Information (RFI)
A type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
A type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Request for Quotation (RFQ)
A type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services. Sometimes used in place of request for proposal and in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Requested Change [Output/Input]
A formally documented change request that is submitted for approval to the integrated change control process.
A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service, result, or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document. Requirements include the quantified and documented needs, wants, and expectations of the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.
Requirements Traceability Matrix
A table that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life cycle.
A provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated.
Reserve Analysis [Technique]
An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
A risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented.
Skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets, or funds.
Resource Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical structure of resources by resource category and resource type used in resource leveling schedules and to develop resource-limited schedules, and which may be used to identify and analyze project human resource assignments.
A calendar of working days and nonworking days that determines those dates on which each specific resource is idle or can be active. Typically defines resource specific holidays and resource availability periods. See also project calendar.
A bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods. Resource availability may be depicted as a line for comparison purposes. Contrasting bars may show actual amounts of resources used as the project progresses.
Resource Leveling [Technique]
Any form of schedule network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resource constraints (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult-to-manage changes in resource availability levels).
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) [Tool]
A structure that relates the project organizational breakdown structure to the work breakdown structure to help ensure that each component of the project’s scope of work is assigned to a person or team.
An output from performing project management processes and activities. Results include outcomes (e.g., integrated systems, revised process, restructured organization, tests, trained personnel, etc.) and documents (e.g., policies, plans, studies, procedures, specifications, reports, etc.). Contrast with product. See also deliverable.
Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into compliance with requirements or specifications.
An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project’s objectives.
Risk Acceptance [Technique]
A risk response planning technique that indicates that the project team has decided not to change the project management plan to deal with a risk, or is unable to identify any other suitable response strategy.
Risk Avoidance [Technique]
A risk response planning technique for a threat that creates changes to the project management plan that are meant to either eliminate the risk or to protect the project objectives from its impact.
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) [Tool]
A hierarchically organized depiction of the identified project risks arranged by risk category and subcategory that identifies the various areas and causes of potential risks. The risk breakdown structure is often tailored to specific project types.
A group of potential causes of risk. Risk causes may be grouped into categories such as technical, external, organizational, environmental, or project management. A category may include subcategories such as technical maturity, weather, or aggressive estimating.
Risk Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document describing how project risk management will be structured and performed on the project. It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan. Information in the risk management plan varies by application area and project size. The risk management plan is different from the risk register that contains the list of project risks, the results of risk analysis, and the risk responses.
Risk Mitigation [Technique]
A risk response planning technique associated with threats that seeks to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a risk to below an acceptable threshold.
Risk Register [Output/Input]
The document containing the results of the qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning. The risk register details all identified risks, including description, category, cause, probability of occurring, impact(s) on objectives, proposed responses, owners, and current status.
The degree, amount, or volume of risk that an organization or individual will withstand.
Risk Transference [Technique]
A risk response planning technique that shifts the impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response.
A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting, coding.
Rolling Wave Planning [Technique]
A form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of the work breakdown structure, while the work far in the future is planned at a relatively high level of the work breakdown structure, but the detailed planning of the work to be performed within another one or two periods in the near future is done as work is being completed during the current period.
Root Cause Analysis [Technique]
An analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance or a defect or a risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance or defect or risk.
Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, percentage of work, or other quantities, plotted against time. Used to depict planned value, earned value, and actual cost of project work. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off. Also a term used to express the cumulative likelihood distribution that is a result of a simulation, a tool of quantitative risk analysis.
See project schedule and see also schedule model.
A specific version of the schedule model used to compare actual results to the plan to determine if preventive or corrective action is needed to meet the project objectives.
Schedule Compression [Technique]
Shortening the project schedule duration without reducing the project scope. See also crashing and fast tracking.
Schedule Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that establishes criteria and the activities for developing and controlling the project schedule. It is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan.
Schedule Model [Tool]
A model used in conjunction with manual methods or project management software to perform schedule network analysis to generate the project schedule for use in managing the execution of a project. See also project schedule.
Schedule Network Analysis [Technique]
The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities. See also critical path method, critical chain method, and resource leveling.
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
A measure of schedule efficiency on a project. It is the ratio of earned value (EV) to planned value (PV). The SPI = EV divided by PV.
Schedule Variance (SV)
A measure of schedule performance on a project. It is the difference between the earned value (EV) and the planned value (PV). SV = EV minus PV.
Scheduled Finish Date (SF)
The point in time that work was scheduled to finish on a schedule activity. The scheduled finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early finish date and the late finish date. It may reflect resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called planned finish date.
Scheduled Start Date (SS)
The point in time that work was scheduled to start on a schedule activity. The scheduled start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early start date and the late start date. It may reflect resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called planned start date.
The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. See also project scope and product scope.
An approved specific version of the detailed scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary.
Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustment to the project cost or schedule.
Adding features and functionality (project scope) without addressing the effects on time, costs, and resources, or without customer approval.
Scope Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that describes how the project scope will be defined, developed, and verified and how the work breakdown structure will be created and defined, and that provides guidance on how the project scope will be managed and controlled by the project management team. It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.
A risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response.
A provider or supplier of products, services, or results to an organization.
A quantitative risk analysis and modeling technique used to help determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the objective being examined when all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values. The typical display of results is in the form of a tornado diagram.
Sequence Activities [Process]
The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.
A simulation uses a project model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project. Project simulations use computer models and estimates of risk, usually expressed as a probability distribution of possible costs or durations at a detailed work level, and are typically performed using Monte Carlo analysis.
Also called float. See total float and free float.
A source of variation that is not inherent in the system, is not predictable, and is intermittent. It can be assigned to a defect in the system. On a control chart, points beyond the control limits, or non-random patterns within the control limits, indicate it. Also referred to as assignable cause. Contrast with common cause.
A document that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system, component, product, result, or service and, often, the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Examples are: requirement specification, design specification, product specification, and test specification.
The area, on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart that meets the customer’s requirements for a product or service. This area may be greater than or less than the area defined by the control limits. See also control limits.
The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project.
Staffing Management Plan
The document that describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. It is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the human resource plan.
Person or organization (e.g., customer, sponsor, performing organization, or the public) that is actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. A stakeholder may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables.
A document that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.
A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current.
The logical relationship where completion of the successor schedule activity is dependent upon the initiation of the predecessor schedule activity. See also logical relationship.
The logical relationship where initiation of the work of the successor schedule activity depends upon the initiation of the work of the predecessor schedule activity. See also logical relationship.
Statement of Work (SOW)
A narrative description of products, services, or results to be supplied.
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis
This information gathering technique examines the project from the perspective of each project’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to increase the breadth of the risks considered by risk management.
A subdivision (fragment) of a project schedule network diagram, usually representing a subproject or a work package. Often used to illustrate or study some potential or proposed schedule condition, such as changes in preferential schedule logic or project scope.
A subdivision of a phase.
A smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces.
The schedule activity that follows a predecessor activity, as determined by their logical relationship.
A group of related schedule activities aggregated at some summary level, and displayed/ reported as a single activity at that summary level. See also subproject and subnetwork.
See project team members.
Technical Performance Measurement [Technique]
A performance measurement technique that compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the project management plan’s schedule of planned technical achievements. It may use key technical parameters of the product produced by the project as a quality metric. The achieved metric values are part of the work performance information.
A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tools.
A partially complete document in a predefined format that provides a defined structure for collecting, organizing, and presenting information and data.
A condition or situation unfavorable to the project, a negative set of circumstances, a negative set of events, a risk that will have a negative impact on a project objective if it occurs, or a possibility for negative changes. Contrast with opportunity.
Three-Point Estimate [Technique]
An analytical technique that uses three cost or duration estimates to represent the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic scenarios. This technique is applied to improve the accuracy of the estimates of cost or duration when the underlying activity or cost component is uncertain.
A cost, time, quality, technical, or resource value used as a parameter, and which may be included in product specifications. Crossing the threshold should trigger some action, such as generating an exception report.
Time and Material (T&M) Contract
A type of contract that is a hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts. Time and material contracts resemble cost reimbursable type arrangements in that they have no definitive end, because the full value of the arrangement is not defined at the time of the award. Thus, time and material contracts can grow in contract value as if they were cost-reimbursable-type arrangements. Conversely, time and material arrangements can also resemble fixed-price arrangements. For example, the unit rates are preset by the buyer and seller, when both parties agree on the rates for the category of senior engineers.
Time-Scaled Schedule Network Diagram [Tool]
Any project schedule network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the schedule activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes schedule network logic.
The calculated projection of cost performance that must be achieved on the remaining work to meet a specified management goal, such as the budget at completion (BAC) or the estimate at completion (EAC). It is the ratio of “remaining work” to the “funds remaining.”
Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result.
The total amount of time that a schedule activity may be delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date, or violating a schedule constraint. Calculated using the critical path method technique and determining the difference between the early finish dates and late finish dates. See also free float.
Trend Analysis [Technique]
An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from a baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods’ data and projecting how much that parameter’s variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.
Indications that a risk has occurred or is about to occur. Triggers may be discovered in the risk identification process and watched in the risk monitoring and control process. Triggers are sometimes called risk symptoms or warning signs.
The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification.
An approach used to optimize project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively.
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known baseline or expected value.
Variance Analysis [Technique]
A method for resolving the total variance in the set of scope, cost, and schedule variables into specific component variances that are associated with defined factors affecting the scope, cost, and schedule variables.
The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition. It is often an internal process. Contrast with validation.
Verify Scope [Process]
The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
A group of persons with a shared objective who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face. Various forms of technology are often used to facilitate communication among team members. Virtual teams can be comprised of persons separated by great distances.
Voice of the Customer
A planning technique used to provide products, services, and results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project product development.
A permission and direction, typically written, to begin work on a specific schedule activity or work package or control account. It is a method for sanctioning project work to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence.
Work Authorization System [Tool]
A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence. It includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) [Output/Input]
A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. It organizes and defines the total scope of the project.
Work Breakdown Structure Component
An entry in the work breakdown structure that can be at any level.
Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary [Output/Input]
A document that describes each component in the work breakdown structure (WBS). For each WBS component, the WBS dictionary includes a brief definition of the scope or statement of work, defined deliverable(s), a list of associated activities, and a list of milestones. Other information may include: responsible organization, start and end dates, resources required, an estimate of cost, charge number, contract information, quality requirements, and technical references to facilitate performance of the work.
A deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of the work breakdown structure. See also control account.
Work Performance Information [Output/Input]
Information and data, on the status of the project schedule activities being performed to accomplish the project work, collected as part of the direct and manage project execution processes. Information includes: status of deliverables; implementation status for change requests, corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs; forecasted estimates to complete; reported percent of work physically completed; achieved value of technical performance measures; start and finish dates of schedule activities.
A response to a negative risk that has occurred. Distinguished from contingency plan in that a workaround is not planned in advance of the occurrence of the risk event.